The European Union and the Philippines (2023)

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The relationship between the EU and the Republic of the Philippines is a longstanding one, which has broadened and deepened remarkably in recent years. The Delegationwas officially openedon 15 May 1991 following the influx of official development assistance to the country after democracy was restored under the Aquino administration in 1986.

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  • Political Relations
  • Human Rights
  • Trade
  • Development Cooperation
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    The European Union and the Philippines (1)

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    Bottom, from left to right: Foreign Affairs Acting Undersecretary for Bilateral Relations and ASEAN Affairs EU Delegation Ma. Theresa P. Lazaro; Managing Director for Asia and the Pacific at the European External Action Service Gunnar Wiegand. (Photos by DFA-OPCD Philip Adrian Fernandez)

Political Relations

(Video) The European Union and the Philippines: Inspiring Each other in Health

On 1 March 2018, thePartnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA)between the EU and the Philippines entered into force. The Agreement provides an enhanced legal framework, enabling the European Union and the Philippines to strengthen their bilateral relationship, in particular on political, social and economic matters.

Prior to the PCA, ministerial and senior official level contactswere heldregularly on economic and political issues of common interest.

Thefirst EU-PHILIPPINES Joint Committee (thehighest governance body under the PCA) met in Brussels on 28 January 2020. The Joint Committee allows the Philippines and the EU to develop the full potential for cooperation in different sectors with a view to raising the bilateral relationship to a higher level and strengthening ties based on mutual interest and respect.  The next Joint Committee should meet in 2021 in Manila.

The Joint Committee established three specialized subcommittees: on Development Cooperation, on Trade, Investment and Economic Cooperation and on Good Governance, Rule of Law and Human Rights. The first subcommittee on Trade, Investment and Economic Cooperation took place on 29 January 2021. Meanwhile, thefirst Sub-Committee on Good Governance, Rule of Law and Human Rights met on 5 February 2021 and on 6 October 2022.  Thefirst Sub-Committee on Development Cooperation met on 19 April 2021.

The second Joint Committee met in Manila on 26 April 2022 and reviewed the implementation of the EU-Philippines Partnership and Cooperation Agreement. A broad range of topics including the current situation in the Philippines and the EU, sectoral cooperation in a number of areas, and geopolitical developments in Asia and Europe were also discussed. The Joint Committee was debriefed and updated on the Subcommittees held in 2021and agreed on strengthening cooperation on maritime issues. The meeting reviewed the multifaceted aspects of the bilateral relationship.The third EU-Philippines Joint Committee will be held in Brussels in the first quarter of 2023. The three sub-committees will be held in Manila prior to that.

The EU has been a staunch supporter of the Mindanao Peace Process throughout the years and welcomed the peaceful conduct of the referendum in early 2019. The EU remains committed to supporting the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM) through its different instruments.

Human Rights

TheEU Human Rights and Democracy Country Strategy (2021-2024)for the Philippines focuses on the following areas of concern: 

  • Fighting impunity, promoting accountability rule of law, including the support to an evidence-based approach to the fight against illegal drugs.
  • Strengtheningthe civic and democratic space.
  • Support freedom of expression online and offline, access to information and fight against disinformation.
  • Rights of the child.
  • Eliminatinginequalities, fightingdiscrimination and empowering women and indigenous peoples.

EU Action Plan on Human Rights

The Council of the EU has adopted on 19 November 2020 theEU third EU Action Plan on Human Rights and Democracy (2020-2024)which provides for a renewed political roadmap that sets the priorities for positioning the EU as a geostrategic and credible global actor seeking to defend EU values and interests.

In April 2022, the EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy presented the 2021EU Annual Report on Human Rights and Democracy in the World. The report has a separate country updates section including the Philippines are available in this documentwhichincludes an overview of the situation, the multilateral context and the areas of bilateral, political and financial engagement for the EU.

The EU continues to engage with its partners, including the national and regional Commissions on Human Rights (CHR), state actors (Department of Justice, Department of Interior and local governments, Department of Foreign Affairs and Presidential Human Rights Committee Secretariat), human rights defenders and civil society.

As part of the EU support to human rights defenders in the Philippines, the delegation has translated theEuropean UnionGuidelines On Human Rights Defendersintoeight local Philippine languages-(Hiligaynon, Cebuano, Tagalog, Ilokano,Meranaw, Bicol, Kapampangan andWaray/Leyte).

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    The European Union and the Philippines (2)

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    2021 Annual Report on Human Rights and Democracy in the World - Report of the EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy

    (Video) European Union Parliament to Philippines: Drop charges vs Maria Ressa
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    The European Union and the Philippines (3)

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    Generalised Scheme of Preferences Plus

Trade

The EU ranked as the Philippines' fourth largest trading partner, while the Philippines was the EU's sixth largest trading partner in the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) in 2019. Trade in goods between the two partners equaled € 14.9 billion in 2019 while bilateral trade in services between the EU and the Philippines reached € 3.7 billion in 2018. (More statistics on the Philippines).

The Philippines continues to benefit from the GSP+ trade preference with a utilization rate of 72% in 2019. In the same year, 25% of total Philippine exports to the EU (almost 2 billion euros) enjoyed preferential treatment under the GSP preferential trade preference.

In 2019, the EU share in the total trade of the Philippines was around 10% with almost balanced trade. Overall, the trend of increasing trade continues as a consequence of more demand, preferential treatment under GSP+ and a more positive business climate resulting in more business missions from the EU to the country. However, attractingmore foreign investments in a highly competitive ASEAN region remains a challenge for the Philippines.

Top products traded between the EU and the Philippines are dominated by machinery, transport equipment; machinery; chemicals, food products and electronic components. Office and telecommunication equipment and machinery are the strongest export product of the Philippines to the EU but growth in other sectorscan be notedthanks to the GSP+-preferences.

EU’s Generalised Scheme of Preferences Plus (GSP+).

Since 25 December 2014, the Philippines has enjoyed enhanced trade preferences with the EU under the EU’s Generalised Scheme of Preferences Plus (GSP+). Before that, the Philippines was a beneficiary of the standard GSP scheme. The special incentive arrangement for Sustainable Development and Good Governance GSP+ grants full removal of tariffs on two thirds of all product categories, aiming to support sustainable development and good governance.

GSP+ beneficiary countries are required to respect a number of international conventions in the areas of human rights, good governance, labour rights and environmental protection. In order to ensure compliance with such principle the EU commission conducts periodic monitoring in the countries and publishes country-specific reports.The latest GSP+ published report (2020). 

EU-Philippines Free Trade Agreement.

Negotiations for an EU-Philippines Free Trade Agreementwere launchedon 22 December 2015. A first round took place in May 2016. The aim is to conclude an agreement that covers a broad range of issues, including tariffs, non-tariff barriers to trade, trade in services and investment, as well as trade aspects of public procurement, intellectual property, competition and sustainable development.

Trade-related technical assistance. 

The trade strategy"Trade for All"was adopted in 2015 and aims to transform trade to make it more responsible and beneficial "for all." 

One of the aims of the EU is to ensure that economic growth goes hand in hand with social justice, respect forhuman rights, labour rights and environmental, health and consumer protection. The EU has been leading in integrating sustainable development objectives into trade policy and making trade an effective tool to promote sustainable development worldwide. The importance of the potential contribution of trade policy to sustainable developmentwas reaffirmedin the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

The EU’s Aid for Trade Strategy helps partnercountries betterintegrate into the global trading system and to use trade to help eradicate poverty in the context of sustainable development.

The EU is a firm supporter of the WTO, which lays down a set of rules to help open up global trade and ensure fair treatment for all participants.

The Philippines is fully committed to multilateral trade arrangements and to the liberalisation of its trade and economy. However, there are a number of technicalissues whichhave prevented the country from taking full advantage of global trade opportunities.

The EU started its first Trade Related Technical Assistance (TRTA) in 2005 with a grant of €3.5 million. After two more phases of TRTA, a new programme was recently concluded entitled Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Regional Integration Support – Philippines Trade-Related Technical Assistance (ARISE Plus – Philippines). ARISEPlus– the Philippines contributes to the integration of the Philippines’ economy into the global production chain, through targeted support to both the public and private sectors. It is the national Philippines component of the ARISE Plus Programme, supporting regional economic integration and trade in the ASEAN. ARISEPlus– the Philippines is a five-year programme with a budget of €6.4 million.

Technical assistance on sanitary andphytosanitary(SPS) measures is also extended to improve and strengthen the SPS framework to allow better production, processing and trade of safe food, healthy animals and plants.

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Development Cooperation

The Philippines is a lower middle-income country that comprises over 7,000 islands and has a population of about 110 million. The Philippines does relatively well on education, life expectancy and GNI per capita. The Philippines shall continue its inclusive growth path, building on its gradual transformation to one of the region’s best performing economies sustaining an average annual growth of 6.3 per cent. While the foundations for economic growth are in place, there are challenges to elevating the economic status of the poor. Poverty declined from 26.3 per cent in 2009 to 21.9 per cent in 2018. It was expected to decline to 19.8 per cent in 2020 before the irruption of the Covid-19 pandemic. Rural poverty, however, remains high. Despite gender equality regulations, the Philippines still face high gender inequality in the labour force participation and limitations in the reproductive health sector.

The main challenge for the Philippines to accomplish is itsPhilippine Development Plan 2017-2022 (PDP), a medium term strategy for poverty reduction and achievement of the SDGs, is to make growth more inclusive and to accelerate job creation by increasing investments particularly in infrastructure, better governance and by improving the business environment including better business services.

The EU's support to the Philippines currently focuses on governance, job creation, renewable energy, and assistance to vulnerablepopulations, specifically inMindanaowhichis the poorest region of the Philippines and has been affected by conflicts and population displacement. The EU remains one the biggest foreign development partners in support of Mindanao and the Peace Processes through a comprehensive approach targeting directly the political settlement with the Instrument contributing to Stability and Peace andlonger termdevelopment mainly through the Development Cooperation Instrument.

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EU development assistanceis closely alignedwith the PDP. The Plan provides a framework that allows the EU to align its development cooperation programmes with Government policies and programmes with clear leadership and ownership on the part of the Philippine authorities.

In December 2021, the EU approved its Multiannual Indicative Programme for the Philippines for 2021-2027. The document allocates EUR 147 million to fund programmes in two main areas of intervention: Resilient Green Economy and Green Jobs, and Peaceful and Just Society and Good Governance. With this new cooperation strategy, the EU gives continuity to its already long-term engagement in the Philippines on Governance and Peace initiatives, but also choses to support the country in its strategic decision to move towards more a more environmentally-sustainable and resilience-oriented economic development, which is indeed in line with the EU’s own priority to address the environmental challenges our world is facing.

Most of the EU funds are given as grants making the EU jointly with the EU Member States, the largest grant donor in the Philippines.

Bilateral EU-Philippines development cooperation is complemented by projects financed through regional and thematic programmes and instruments that are often implemented by civil society organisations addressing social issues, environment, indigenous people rights, human rights, local governance, peacebuilding, and migration.

In addition, the EU is one of the most important donors to support the Philippines in cases of serious natural disasters which require emergency aid, such as after super-typhoon Odette.

EU and the Member States, acting as Team Europe Philippines are continuously working with various stakeholders to mitigate the impacts of Covid-19 and to respond to immediate needs.

The impact of EU’s development cooperation in the Philippines:

•EU’s support to the Health Sector through budget support programmes (closed in 2018) significantly contributed to the country's goal of achieving Universal Health Care and to strengthening the confidential, voluntary and evidence-based treatment of drug-dependent persons.

•The EU contributes to the national electrification policy through the electrification of 100,000 households with innovative renewable energy solutions coupled with livelihood activities.

•In the justice sector, EU’s support contributes to the curtail of backlog in courts, the reduction of prosecution services and the improvement of case management with a focus on “justice zones”.

•EU's comprehensive support to the Bangsamoro peace process facilitated the passing of the Bangsamoro Organic Law and its ratification by the population.

Bilateral EU-Philippines development cooperationis complementedby projects financed through regional and thematic programmes and instruments that are often implemented by civil society organisations addressing social issues, environment, indigenous people rights, human rights, local governance, peacebuilding, and migration.

In addition, the EU is one of the most important donors to support the Philippines in cases of serious naturaldisasters whichrequire emergency aid, such as after super-typhoon Haiyan.

EU and the Member States, acting asTeam Europe Philippines are continuously working with variousstakeholders to mitigate the impacts of Covid-19 and to respond to immediate needs.

The impact of EU’s development cooperation in the Philippines:

  • EU’s support to the Health Sector through budget support programmes (closed in 2018) significantly contributed to the country's goal of achieving Universal Health Care and to strengthening the confidential, voluntary and evidence-based treatment of drug-dependent persons.
  • The EU contributes to the national electrification policy through the electrification of 100,000 households with innovative renewable energy solutions coupled with livelihood activities.
  • In the justice sector, EU’s support contributes to the curtail of backlog in courts, the reduction of prosecution services and the improvement of case management with a focus on “justice zones”.
  • EU's comprehensive support to theBangsamoropeace process facilitated the passing of theBangsamoroOrganic Law and its ratification by the population.
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    The European Union and the Philippines (4)

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    Job growth is one of the main goals of the EU Delegation to Philipines.

(Video) EU envoy assures stronger ties between European Union and Philippines

FAQs

What is the impact of European Union in the Philippines? ›

The EU is the Philippines' fourth largest trading partner, accounting for the 7.9% of the country's total trade in 2021 (after China, Japan and the US). The Philippines is the EU's 39th largest trading partner globally, accounting for 0.4% of the EU's total trade.

What is an European Union? ›

The European Union is a unique partnership between 27 European countries, known as Member States, or EU countries. Together they cover much of the European continent. The EU is home to around 447 million people, which is around 6 % of the world's population. Citizens of the EU countries are also EU citizens.

Which of the following is the main purpose of the European Union? ›

The Treaty of Lisbon set out the aims of the European Union: To promote peace and the well-being of EU citizens. To offer EU citizens freedom, security and justice, without internal borders, while also controlling external borders.

Does the Philippines have a free trade agreement with other country like Europe Middle East? ›

PJEPA is the Philippines' only bilateral free trade agreement, covering, among others, trade in goods, trade in services, investments, movement of natural persons, intellectual property, customs procedures, improvement of the business environment, and government procurement.

What are the benefits of the European Union? ›

General Advantages
  • Membership in a community of stability, democracy, security and prosperity;
  • Stimulus to GDP growth, more jobs, higher wages and pensions;
  • Growing internal market and domestic demand;
  • Free movement of labour, goods, services and capital;
  • Free access to 450 million consumers.

How does the European Union impact the world? ›

The aims of the EU within the wider world are: uphold and promote its values and interests. contribute to peace and security and the sustainable development of the Earth. contribute to solidarity and mutual respect among peoples, free and fair trade, eradication of poverty and the protection of human rights.

Why did the European Union come about? ›

The European Union was created as a result of post-war cooperation in Europe to ensure peace, prosperity, and stability on the continent. World War II left Europe with millions of civilian casualties, a devastated economy, and weak security.

Which best describes the European Union? ›

3. Which of the following best describes the European Union? The EU is largely an alliance between countries of Europe to foster economic growth through a shared market and currency.

Which country is called EU? ›

The European Union (EU) is a supranational political and economic union of 27 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The union has a total area of 4,233,255.3 km2 (1,634,469.0 sq mi) and an estimated total population of about 447 million.

What was the main purpose of EU and how does it helps each member country? ›

The EU promotes democratic values in its member nations and is one of the world's most powerful trade blocs. Nineteen of the countries share the euro as their official currency. The EU grew out of a desire to strengthen economic and political cooperation throughout the continent of Europe in the wake of World War II.

What is the main goal of the European Union Brainly? ›

Answer. The primary goal of the European Union is to promote scientific and technological progress.

How is the European Union created and for what purpose? ›

The modern European Union, founded in 1992, has its origins in post–World War II attempts to integrate European economies and prevent future conflicts. It consists of seven major institutions and dozens of smaller bodies that make law, coordinate foreign affairs and trade, and manage a common budget.

Which country does Philippines trade with the most? ›

Philippines top 5 Export and Import partners
MarketTrade (US$ Mil)Partner share(%)
United States10,02615.37
China9,83015.07
Hong Kong, China9,22614.15
Singapore3,7745.79
1 more row

How important is international trade to the Philippine economy? ›

In particular, trade openness and foreign portfolio flows have contributed to higher per capita GDP growth in the Philippines, following the implementation of FX liberalisation reforms. A significant increase in OF remittances has raised consumption, investment, labour productivity and economic growth.

Does the Philippines still trade with other countries? ›

Philippines is currently our 31st largest goods trading partner with $18.9 billion in total (two way) goods trade during 2020. Goods exports totaled $7.7 billion; goods imports totaled $11.1 billion. The U.S. goods trade deficit with Philippines was $3.4 billion in 2020.

How powerful is the European Union? ›

While the EU is a superpower in the sense that it is the largest political union, single market and aid donor in the world, it is not a superpower in the defence or foreign policy spheres.

Why should we stay in the European Union? ›

Remaining inside the EU guarantees our full access to its Single Market. By contrast, leaving creates uncertainty and risk. The EU's Single Market has over 500 million customers and an economy over five times bigger than the UK's.

Which country benefit the most from the EU? ›

An Unequal Share
RankMember StatePer capita net contribution (€ per resident)
#1Germany€284
#2United Kingdom€254
#3France€208
#4Italy€196
6 more rows
20 Sept 2019

What is the purpose of European Union relationship with developing countries? ›

The EU wants to help the world's least-developed countries (LDCs) and others to boost their production, diversify their economy and infrastructure, and improve their governance. The EU's trade and development policy emphasises that these countries should have ownership of their own development strategies.

How does the EU help other countries? ›

Together, the EU institutions and countries are the world's leading donor of development assistance and cooperation. The EU proposes legislation and policies to promote good governance and human and economic development, such as fighting hunger and preserving natural resources.

How does the European Union work? ›

The European Union has its own legislature and executive, as well as an independent judiciary and a central bank. These are supported and complemented by a set of institutions and bodies, the powers conferred on which derive from the founding Treaties.

How many countries are in European Union? ›

The European Union ( EU ) is an economic and political union of 27 countries.

Who controls the European Union? ›

The European Council sets the EU's main political priorities and overall policy direction. It is chaired by a president who is elected every 2½ years. The European Council does not pass EU laws.

What are three facts about the European Union? ›

In 1958, this became known as the European Economic Community (EEC), and its name was changed to the European Union in 1993. Over the years, 22 more countries joined the original 6. On 1 February 2020, the United Kingdom left the EU. The EU currently has 27 member countries, and has 24 official languages.

What is Europe short answer? ›

Europe is often described as a “peninsula of peninsulas.” A peninsula is a piece of land surrounded by water on three sides. Europe is a peninsula of the Eurasian supercontinent and is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian seas to the south.

What is European Union introduction? ›

The EU is a unique economic and political partnership between 27 European countries. It was first created in 1958 as the European Economic Community (EEC) by Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.

How old is the EU? ›

25 March 1957 – Treaties of Rome

They formalise this by signing two treaties, creating the European Economic Community (EEC), and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). These bodies come into being on 1 January 1958.

What is the real name of Europe? ›

Europa, Europe comes from the Phoenician word EROB, meaning where the sun set (west of Phoenicia,west of Bosphorus, Sea of Marmora). Erebo: I go under. Ereba: The land where I go under. Acu (pronounciatian asu) the land where I (the sun) are coming up: Ereb, ereba= europa Asu = Asie, Asia.

How many countries are in the world? ›

Countries in the World:

There are 195 countries in the world today. This total comprises 193 countries that are member states of the United Nations and 2 countries that are non-member observer states: the Holy See and the State of Palestine.

What was the main goal of the European economic Community? ›

The European Community dealt with policies and governing, in a communal fashion, across all member states. The primary goal of the European Community was to foster a common trade policy that would eliminate trade barriers, thereby improving economic conditions for the entire region.

What are four goals of the European Union? ›

What are the goals of the European Union?
  • Promote peace and well-being among the citizens.
  • Offer freedom, security and justice without internal borders.
  • Work towards the sustainable development of Europe while promoting equality and social justice.
  • Establish an economic union with Euro as the currency.
1 Aug 2022

What is the main goal of the European Commission? ›

The Commission helps to shape the EU's overall strategy, proposes new EU laws and policies, monitors their implementation and manages the EU budget. It also plays a significant role in supporting international development and delivering aid.

Why is the Philippines is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of resources? ›

The Philippines has a bounty of minerals, cropland, timber, and coastal and marine resources. These natural resources make up an estimated 19% of the nation's wealth, contributing to the country's consistent GDP growth.

What the Philippines sold to the world? ›

The list of products made in the Philippines that are manufactured goods includes steel, chemicals, paper, textile, aircraft, machinery, clothing, vehicles, refined petroleum products, and others. Countries that import these goods include the United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore.

What is the Philippines known for? ›

The Philippines is known for having an abundance of beautiful beaches and delicious fruit. The collection of islands is located in Southeast Asia and was named after King Philip II of Spain.

Why is it important to have good international trade among countries? ›

International trade allows countries to expand their markets and access goods and services that otherwise may not have been available domestically. As a result of international trade, the market is more competitive. This ultimately results in more competitive pricing and brings a cheaper product home to the consumer.

What is the role of the Philippines in international trade? ›

The Philippines is a signatory to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and has recently lifted quantitative restrictions on imports of all food products, including rice. Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQs) remain on a number of sensitive products such as corn, poultry meat, pork, sugar, potatoes, and coffee.

What can the Philippines do to improve the economy in the future? ›

The top three policy reform areas for sustaining high growth and productivity, prerequisites for achieving Ambisyon Natin 2040 are: (i) improving market competition through regulatory reforms; (ii) improving trade and investment climate policies and regulations; (iii) reducing labor market rigidities and costs.

Which country Philippines is allies with? ›

It has been a supporter of East Timor since the latter's independence and has expanded trade links with its traditional allies Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand.

Is Philippines a developing country? ›

Is the Philippines Considered a Developing Country? Yes, the World Bank classifies the Philippines as a developing economy.

What was the impact of the European economic Community? ›

The EEC created a common market that featured the elimination of most barriers to the movement of goods, services, capital, and labour, the prohibition of most public policies or private agreements that inhibit market competition, a common agricultural policy (CAP), and a common external trade policy.

Why is the EU important for the economy? ›

The EU's economic and fiscal rules, including the Stability and Growth Pact, a central component of Economic and Monetary Union, promote economic stability and growth. Second, the euro is the key mechanism for maximising the benefits of the single market, trade policy and political cooperation.

What are five impacts of European colonization? ›

Colonialism's impacts include environmental degradation, the spread of disease, economic instability, ethnic rivalries, and human rights violations—issues that can long outlast one group's colonial rule.

How does the European Union contribute to economic globalization? ›

Global Trade. Over many decades, the EU was a powerful force in extending international trade. The union supported multilateral trade accords, the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the gradual widening of the trade agenda.

What impact did the Europeans have on the new world? ›

The Europeans brought technologies, ideas, plants, and animals that were new to America and would transform peoples' lives: guns, iron tools, and weapons; Christianity and Roman law; sugarcane and wheat; horses and cattle. They also carried diseases against which the Indian peoples had no defenses.

What was the impact of European settlement on the environment? ›

Overview. Colonization ruptured many ecosystems, bringing in new organisms while eliminating others. The Europeans brought many diseases with them that decimated Native American populations. Colonists and Native Americans alike looked to new plants as possible medicinal resources.

What are the effects of colonization in the Philippines? ›

Spanish colonization (1521-1896) led to the decline of pre- existing and often prosperous economic and political centers in the Philippines, due to lack of any real incentives for the “Indios” (e.g., see Mojares 1991).

What are the positive effects of colonization in the Philippines? ›

Some of the positive effects were: universities were opened early. In 1820 only the Philippines have improved in civilization, wealth, and Populousness. The establish of schools, many schools were built. They taught them how to read, write, and speak in English.

What were the positive effects of European colonization? ›

Some positives historians have pointed out are medicine, education, improved infrastructure, Christianity, and boundaries. The growth of the African population was aided by the Western medicine introduced by Europeans. Africans were introduced to formal education by Europeans.

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3. Johann Farnhammer on the EU's changing focus in the Philippines
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4. PHILIPPINES: MANILA: EUROPEAN UNION ARRIVAL
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