(PDF) Investigation of the Mechanism of Anti-Inflammatory Action and Cytotoxicity of a Semipurified Fraction and Isolated Compounds From the Leaf of Peltophorum africanum (Fabaceae). (2017) | S.A. Adebayo | 4 Citations (2022)

Journal ArticleDOI

The role of TNF-α in chronic inflammatory conditions, intermediary metabolism, and cardiovascular risk

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Calin D. Popa1, Mihai G. Netea1, Piet L. C. M. van Riel1, Jos W. M. van der Meer1 +1 moreInstitutions (1)

01 Apr 2007-Journal of Lipid Research

TL;DR: Investigations assessing the impact of anti-TNF agents on intermediary metabolism suggest that TNF-alpha blockade may improve insulin resistance and lipid profiles in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases.

Abstract: The recent insight that inflammation contributes to the development of atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus constitutes a major breakthrough in understanding the mechanisms underlying these conditions. In addition, it opens the way for new therapeutic approaches that might eventually decrease the prevalence of these public health problems. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) has been shown to play a key role in these processes and thus might be a potential therapeutic target. Increased concentrations of TNF-alpha are found in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions (e.g., trauma, sepsis, infection, rheumatoid arthritis), in which a shift toward a proatherogenic lipid profile and impaired glucose tolerance occurs. Although therapeutic blockade of TNF-alpha worsens the prognosis in patients with abscesses and granulomatous infections, this strategy is highly beneficial in the case of chronic inflammatory conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis. Current investigations assessing the impact of anti-TNF agents on intermediary metabolism suggest that TNF-alpha blockade may improve insulin resistance and lipid profiles in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases.

566citations

Journal ArticleDOI

Inflammatory cytokines in experimental and human stroke

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Kate Lykke Lambertsen1, Knut Biber2, Bente Finsen2, Bente Finsen1Institutions (2)

TL;DR: The fact that TNF and IL-1, and suppossedly also IL-6, are produced by microglia within the therapeutic window place these cells centrally in potential future stroke therapy, in the context of suggestions that neuronal sensitivity to ischemia may be modulated by cytokines.

Abstract: Inflammation is a hallmark of stroke pathology. The cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6, modulate tissue injury in experimental stroke and are therefore potential targets in future stroke therapy. The effect of these cytokines on infarct evolution depends on their availability in the ischemic penumbra in the early phase after stroke onset, corresponding to the therapeutic window (<4.5 hours), which is similar in human and experimental stroke. This review summarizes a large body of literature on the spatiotemporal and cellular production of TNF, IL-1, and IL-6, focusing on the early phase in experimental and human stroke. We also review studies of cytokines in blood and cerebrospinal fluid in stroke. Tumor necrosis factor and IL-1 are upregulated early in peri-infarct microglia. Newer literature suggests that IL-6 is produced by microglia, in addition to neurons. Tumor necrosis factor- and IL-1-producing macrophages infiltrate the infarct and peri-infarct with a delay. This information is discussed in the context of suggestions that neuronal sensitivity to ischemia may be modulated by cytokines. The fact that TNF and IL-1, and suppossedly also IL-6, are produced by microglia within the therapeutic window place these cells centrally in potential future stroke therapy.

475citations

Additional excerpts

  • ...Over-expression of GM-CSF leads to severe inflammation.(17,18)...

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Journal ArticleDOI

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and T-cell responses: what we do and don't know

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Yufang Shi1, Catherine H. Liu1, Arthur I. Roberts1, Jyoti Das1 +8 moreInstitutions (1)

01 Feb 2006-Cell Research

TL;DR: The hematopoietic system of GM-CSF-deficient mice appears to be normal; the most significant changes are in some specific T cell responses.

Abstract: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is an important hematopoietic growth factor and immune modulator. GM-CSF also has profound effects on the functional activities of various circulating leukocytes. It is produced by a variety of cell types including T cells, macrophages, endothelial cells and fibroblasts upon receiving immune stimuli. Although GM-CSF is produced locally, it can act in a paracrine fashion to recruit circulating neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes to enhance their functions in host defense. Recent intensive investigations are centered on the application of GM-CSF as an immune adjuvant for its ability to increase dendritic cell (DC) maturation and function as well as macrophage activity. It is used clinically to treat neutropenia in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, in AIDS patients during therapy, and in patients after bone marrow transplantation. Interestingly, the hematopoietic system of GM-CSF-deficient mice appears to be normal; the most significant changes are in some specific T cell responses. Although molecular cloning of GM-CSF was carried out using cDNA library of T cells and it is well known that the T cells produce GM-CSF after activation, there is a lack of systematic investigation of this cytokine in production by T cells and its effect on T cell function. In this article, we will focus mainly on the immunobiology of GM-CSF in T cells.

412citations

"Investigation of the Mechanism of A..." refers background in this paper

  • ...GM-CSF is an important hematopoietic growth factor and immune modulator.(15) This cytokine has profound proinflammatory effects on the functional activities of various circulating leucocytes....

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Journal ArticleDOI

Effects of Flavonoids and other Polyphenols on Inflammation

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Raquel González1, Isabel Ballester2, Rocío López-Posadas1, María Dolores Suárez1 +3 moreInstitutions (2)

22 Mar 2011-Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

TL;DR: There is substantial consistency in the effects of these compounds despite considerable structural variations, and at present there is a gap in knowledge of in vitro and in vivo effects, although the pharmacokinetics of flavonoids has advanced considerably in the last decade.

Abstract: Flavonoids are a family of polyphenolic compounds which are widespread in nature (vegetables) and are consumed as part of the human diet in significant amounts. There are other types of polyphenols, including, for example, tannins and resveratrol. Flavonoids and related polyphenolic compounds have significant antiinflammatory activity, among others. This short review summarizes the current knowledge on the effects of flavonoids and related polyphenolic compounds on inflammation, with a focus on structural requirements, the mechanisms involved, and pharmacokinetic considerations. Different molecular (cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase) and cellular targets (macrophages, lymphocytes, epithelial cells, endothelium) have been identified. In addition, many flavonoids display significant antioxidant/radical scavenging properties. There is substantial structural variation in these compounds, which is bound to have an impact on their biological profile, and specifically on their effects on inflammatory conditions. However, in general terms there is substantial consistency in the effects of these compounds despite considerable structural variations. The mechanisms have been studied mainly in myeloid cells, where the predominant effect is an inhibition of NF-κB signaling and the downregulation of the expression of proinflammatory markers. At present there is a gap in knowledge of in vitro and in vivo effects, although the pharmacokinetics of flavonoids has advanced considerably in the last decade. Many flavonoids have been studied for their intestinal antiinflammatory activity which is only logical, since the gastrointestinal tract is naturally exposed to them. However, their potential therapeutic application in inflammation is not restricted to this organ and extends to other sites and conditions, including arthritis, asthma, encephalomyelitis, and atherosclerosis, among others.

385citations

"Investigation of the Mechanism of A..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Although, the complete process of the signaling pathways and gene expressions are not fully understood, recent work has attempted to explain the molecular basis of the inflammatory response.(1) Activities of transcription factors, kinases, and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory conditions....

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Journal ArticleDOI

The main function of IL-2 is to promote the development of T regulatory cells.

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Thomas R. Malek1Institutions (1)

01 Dec 2003-Journal of Leukocyte Biology

TL;DR: From being considered the primary growth factor for antigen‐activated T lymphocytes, these new findings redefine the pivotal role for IL‐2 as the major inducer for the developmental production of suppressive Treg cells.

Abstract: Based primarily on vitro studies, interleukin (IL)-2 has been considered a key growth and death factor for antigen-activated T lymphocytes. IL-2 is also essential to maintain self-tolerance, as IL-2- and IL-2 receptor-deficient mice exhibit lethal autoimmunity. The intrinsic death-sensitizing activity of IL-2 was thought to be a key mediator for apoptosis of peripheral autoreactive T cells. However, recent in vivo studies strongly favor a model whereby IL-2 controls autoimmunity through the production of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory (Treg) cells. In this setting, IL-2 is essential for expansion of Treg cells within the thymus and in peripheral neonatal-immune tissue. Thus, from being considered the primary growth factor for antigen-activated T lymphocytes, these new findings redefine the pivotal role for IL-2 as the major inducer for the developmental production of suppressive Treg cells.

308citations

"Investigation of the Mechanism of A..." refers background in this paper

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