CIRS - Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Mold (2022)

So back to mold.

Now think carefully. Are you aware of any mold in your home, work environment or school, or do your symptoms get worse when you spend time in certain buildings? It may be hiding in places you don’t often look at. Some common sources of mold in the home environment include:

  • Books and papers in attics or basements that got wet over time
  • Attic condensation
  • Toilet seal leaks
  • Shower walls that haven’t been sealed properly
  • Behind washing machines
  • Carpets, curtains, pillows or fluffy children’s toys through water or food spills

Whilst we’re on the subject of hidden mold, I’m going to take this opportunity to clear up some misconceptions about mold:

  • Just because you can’t see mold, doesn’t mean that it’s not in your environment. Mold spores can be settled in dust or circulate through the air.
  • Painting over mold will not kill or seal it up.
  • Bleach and other chemicals may kill mold but even the dead mold may be dangerous
  • Before you consider clean-up you should detect and repair the moisture source first. Otherwise mold will return.
  • So it goes without saying that the best way to prevent mold is to remove the water and moisture sources.

THE ROLE OF GENE MUTATIONS IN MOLD TOXICITY SYNDROME

An important question may be why some people only have mild symptoms such as chronic sinus problems while others develop CIRS and get really sick. Part of the answer lies in our genes. And interestingly enough it involves the same family of genes that include the coeliac genes (related to severe gluten intolerance), namely the HLA DR/DQ genes.

(Video) CIRS: Neuroinflammation in Clinical Practice Part 1

It has been found that those with genetic mutations in HLA DRB1, DQB1, DRB3, DRB4 and DRB5 are more susceptible to getting sick from being exposed to mold. The more mutations, the bigger the risk. This indicates that some people have a clear genetic susceptibility to develop CIRS after being exposed to triggers such as mold.

If we add to that, gene mutations on some of the really important detoxification systems such as SOD (Super Oxide Dismutase) and Glutathione, well, that’s really going to make it hard for those people to clear biotoxins safely and effectively from their system.

I’m really cautious when I say this though because I don’t want to simplify Biotoxin Illness to a set of genes. This would be tremendously foolish and would miss the point completely, but it is important to acknowledge this piece of the puzzle along with all the other information.

HOW DO MOLD BIOTOXINS AFFECT MY LUNGS?

It would make sense that the organ most affected by mold exposure would be the respiratory organs, right? You are breathing in the air containing mold spores and biotoxins and this travels straight into the lungs and sinuses. Within the sinuses it can attach to the olfactory nerve receptors. It is likely that many asthma diagnoses should really be Mold Biotoxin diagnoses.

But anyway…

You can see from the illustration below how chronic inflammatory insults to the lung or pulmonary arterioles can lead to thickening and remodelling of the small blood vessel walls where oxygen exchange takes place. If you are exposed to mold biotoxins or anything else that can upregulate TGF beta-1, and your pulmonary arterioles start looking like this, you will feel as if you are breathing through a straw.

Not a pleasant feeling.

HOW DOES THIS AFFECT MY BRAIN?

As you can see from the image shown here, the olfactory bulb is situated right above the nasal cavity and sends out nerve projections into the nose which is how you pick up smells. As you breath in moldy air containing biotoxins, it is likely that ionophores bind to the olfactory receptors and create chaotic signalling to the rest of the brain.

(Video) Introduction to Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (CIRS)

For the nerds:

We’ll quickly pause here and look at ionophores and what they are.

Biotoxins consist of small, negatively charged molecules that form anion-rings, and it’s these rings that are called ionophores.

Ionophores have a dipole structure which makes them water-soluble on the inside and fat-soluble on the outside.

This allows them to get comfortable and situate themselves into the inner fatty compartment of the cell membrane.

Now they can behave like an ion channel but instead of transporting ions such as potassium, sodium and calcium across the cell membrane, it transports toxins across. In this way it can disrupt cellular function without actually killing the cell.

The presence of these ionophores may activate NFkB and increase the production of cytokines. In less complicated terms, it inflames the brain. This is why you may experience symptoms such as brain fog, memory problems, mood swings, sleep disorder, headaches, anxiety and depression.

(Video) Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (CIRS) demystified.

By Adamchemik – Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2481326

OK, so we left off at the olfactory receptors.

When these olfactory receptors receive constant and chaotic nerve signals from the biotoxins, this may have a flow-on affect to other brain areas such as the hypothalamus, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, and eventually the caudate nucleus.

Why is this important?

When brain scans are done using NeuroQuant volumetric data, it shows atrophy of the caudate nucleus in those with CIRS. It means the caudate nucleus is shrinking. Let’s have a look at the many important functions of the caudate nuclei in the brain:

  • Motor inhibition
  • Directed movements
  • Spatial processing
  • Executive function
  • Goal-directed action
  • Working memory
  • Learning consolidation
  • Deep wave sleep
  • Openness to emotional attachment

And guess what other disease conditions are associated with shrinking of the caudate nucleus?

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • OCD
  • Schizphrenia

Interesting, right?

What happens if you are in fact affected by mold biotoxins and you don’t do anything about it?

  • You will most likely get sicker as time passes.
  • All symptoms associated with inflammation such as joint pains, headaches, lung and sinus problems will worsen over time.
  • You will be given more antibiotic treatments that will be ineffective and just ruin your gut along the way and suppress your immune system.
  • Depression and anxiety will worsen as certain areas in the brain continue to be inflamed, and eventually shrink.
  • Chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia will set in or get worse.
  • Your quality of life will suffer as you have less and less energy or mental drive to be productive, exercise or spend time on hobbies you once loved.

This doesn’t have to be you.

How good would it be to know if this was in fact an important piece of the puzzle in your ill health. If this is identified early on through testing, and appropriate steps are taken to address this, how much different would your life be?

(Video) Surviving Mold - Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (CIRS) - Dr. Ritchie Shoemaker

Mold Biotoxin Screens or Tests can be done to see if this pertains to you or your family.

You can also read more in our Resource Section about Mold Biotoxin issues and steps you can take to ‘clean’ your environment.

References:

http://www.survivingmold.com/docs/Berndtson_essay_2_CIRS.pdf

Woodman L, et al. Mast cells promote airway smooth muscle differentiation via autocrine up-regulation of TGF-beta 1. Journal of Immunology. 2008 Oct 1;181(7):5001-5007.

Gascuel J, Lemoine A, et al. Hypothalamus-olfactory crosstalk. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy. 2012 (6):44.

Shoemaker R. Linkage disequilibrium in alleles of HLA DR: differential association with susceptibility to chronic illness following exposure to biologically produced neurotoxins. American Society of Microbiology 2003. (conference peer review).

Rauch SL, Kim H, Makris N, Cosgrove GR, Cassem EH, Savage CR, Price BH, Nierenberg AA, Shera D, Baer L, Buchbinder B, Caviness VS Jr, Jenike MA, Kennedy DN. Volume reduction in the caudate nucleus following stereotactic placement of lesions in the anterior cingulate cortex in humans: a morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurosurgery. 2000;93(6):1019-1026.

Bennett S, Grant M, Creese AJ, Mangialasche F, Cecchetti R, Cooper HJ, Mecocci P, Aldred S. Plasma levels of complement C4a protein are increased in Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s Disease and Associated Disorders. 2012 Oct-Dec;26(4):329-34.

FAQs

Can you fully recover from CIRS? ›

VIP nasal spray may also be helpful for CIRS patients with multiple chemical sensitivities by down regulating olfactory driven neurons. I find the average time it takes to completely reverse CIRS and be back to normal function is 6- 12 months. You may notice significant improvements much sooner than that, though.

What does CIRS feel like? ›

Body Aches, Weakness, Headache, Light Sensitivity, Decreased Assimilation of New Knowledge. If your body aches all the time, it can be a sign you may have Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome. Weakness, headaches, light sensitivity — all of these are closely related symptoms of CIRS.

Is CIRS a recognized disease? ›

CIRS is not an accepted diagnosis in standard health care, the illnesses it can cause such as infections or allergic asthma are.

What doctor do you see for CIRS? ›

Finding a Functional Medicine Doctor for CIRS

If you suspect you have Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, it's important you make an appointment with a functional medicine doctor who has experience in working with CIRS.

How does CIRS affect the brain? ›

CIRS is a brain on fire. A dominant clinical feature of CIRS is the common cognitive complaints by patients, including memory loss, mood disorders, brain fog, loss of executive function and fatigue. This is not a surprise considering that this is a key component of the innate immune response.

How do you beat CIRS? ›

We've come a long way in our understanding chronic inflammatory response syndrome, also known as CIRS.
...
bailing water out of your bucket!
  1. Check your home and office for mold. ...
  2. Clean up your air. ...
  3. Get on a low mold diet. ...
  4. Use detox binders. ...
  5. Adopt detoxifying techniques.
26 Mar 2018

Is there a blood test for CIRS? ›

Testing for CIRS includes a blood test that covers inflammatory markers, hormone markers and some relevant antibodies. The nasal swab test for MARCoNS is also useful to consider especially if there are sinus symptoms, although this can still be present with no symptoms.

How do you tell if you have CIRS? ›

Some common symptoms of CIRS include:
  1. Cognitive difficulties such as brain fog and trouble concentrating.
  2. Fatigue and weakness or chronic fatigue syndrome.
  3. Unexplained weight gain.
  4. Frequent urination, excessive thirst, dehydration.
  5. Fibromyalgia.
  6. Visual insensitivity.
  7. Post nasal drip and sore throat.
  8. Numbness and tingling.

What are the signs of mold toxicity? ›

The most common symptoms of mold exposure include:
  • Coughing.
  • Postnasal drip.
  • Sneezing.
  • Dry, scaly skin.
  • Itchy eyes, nose, or throat.
  • Nasal congestion.
26 May 2021

Is CIRS permanent? ›

When a person who is genetically susceptible to CIRS spends time in a water-damaged building, that person's immune system may not be able to recognize the mold biotoxins being inhaled. Instead of binding to and removing them from the body, the immune system allows the biotoxins to circulate—potentially indefinitely.

Can CIRS cause anxiety? ›

Inhabitants of affected dwellings typically report headaches, respiratory and musculoskeletal symptoms. Some studies have also reported that mold-exposed groups had altered nervous system functioning, including changes in balance and vision. The exposed people also had significant depression and anxiety.

Why does CIRS cause weight gain? ›

High levels of leptin increase the amount of fat stored in the body, causing weight gain. In biotoxin-related illness, cytokines attach to leptin receptors in the hypothalamus, interfering with leptin signaling and creating leptin resistance. Weight gain due to leptin resistance is common in CIRS patients.

Is CIRS hereditary? ›

What is CIRS? Chronic inflammatory response syndrome is a biotoxin illness triggered by exposure to mold. Around 25% of the US population have the genes which put them at risk of developing CIRS if brought into contact with mold. However, you don't necessarily have to have this genetic predisposition to develop CIRS.

How is chronic inflammatory response treated? ›

For acute inflammation, rest, ice and good wound care often relieve the discomfort in a few days. If you have chronic inflammation, your healthcare provider may recommend: Supplements: Certain vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D) and supplements (zinc) may reduce inflammation and enhance repair.

What causes widespread inflammation? ›

Several things can cause chronic inflammation, including: untreated causes of acute inflammation, like an infection or injury. an autoimmune disorder, which involves your immune system mistakenly attacking healthy tissue. long-term exposure to irritants, like industrial chemicals or polluted air.

What gene is for CIRS? ›

24% of the population is genetically at risk to develop CIRS, due to alterations in their Human Leukocyte Antigen genes (HLA).

What are the symptoms of chronic inflammation? ›

Symptoms of Chronic Inflammation
  • Body pain, arthralgia, myalgia.
  • Chronic fatigue and insomnia.
  • Depression, anxiety and mood disorders.
  • Gastrointestinal complications like constipation, diarrhea, and acid reflux.
  • Weight gain or weight loss.
  • Frequent infections.
19 Jun 2022

Can mold exposure cause pots? ›

Pancreatitis and malabsorption blamed on mold exposure resulted in weakness, POTS, and numerous signs/symptoms of malnutrition in this patient. After 3 years of ineffective treatment for mold, the patient was instead found to be suffering with poor vagus nerve function, immediately responsive to treatment.

What foods should be avoided with mold poisoning? ›

You will need to avoid all sugar, including natural sugars (honey, molasses) and fruits that are high in fructose, such as grapes, bananas, and pineapple. Dried fruit should also be avoided. Grains are a major source of mold-contaminated foods.

How do you reduce mold inflammatory? ›

These include:
  1. Nasal corticosteroids. These nasal sprays help prevent and treat the inflammation caused by an upper respiratory mold allergy. ...
  2. Antihistamines. These medications can help with itching, sneezing and runny nose. ...
  3. Oral decongestants. ...
  4. Decongestant nasal sprays. ...
  5. Montelukast.
21 Jun 2021

Is CIRS an autoimmune disease? ›

CIRS is short for Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and is essentially a biotoxin triggered immune dysfunction disorder. This syndrome was originally characterized by Ritchie Shoemaker MD, a Family Physician in Pocomoke, Maryland.

What is a biotoxin illness? ›

What Is Biotoxin Illness? Biotoxin illness is an umbrella term that refers to illness caused when a person is exposed to neurotoxins from biological organisms in their environment. It is an environmentally acquired illness most commonly caused by mold growth in water damaged buildings.

How do you test for mycotoxins? ›

Testing for mycotoxins in humans is a simple and usually noninvasive procedure. In most cases, only a urine sample is required. Testing can also be done on nasal secretions, sputum or tissue biopsy collected by a physician.

Does labcorp do mold testing? ›

A wide range of tests can identify 500+ relevant allergens—including grasses, foods, molds and animal dander—to help you get the allergy answers you need.

Which antihistamine is best for mold allergy? ›

Over-the-counter (OTC) antihistamines include loratadine (Alavert, Claritin), fexofenadine (Allegra Allergy) and cetirizine (Zyrtec Allergy). They cause little to no drowsiness or dry mouth.

What illnesses can mold cause? ›

These include:
  • Mold-induced asthma. In people allergic to mold, breathing in spores can trigger an asthma flare-up. ...
  • Allergic fungal sinusitis. This results from an inflammatory reaction to fungus in the sinuses.
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. ...
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
21 Jun 2021

Can mold toxicity cause joint pain? ›

Some types of mold do produce toxic compounds, however, known as mycotoxins. It's these compounds that can cause a myriad of medical problems, including joint pain.

What can mold do to your brain? ›

Inflammation: Mold spores act as irritants, which can trigger the body to mount an immune response. This can lead to inflammation throughout the body. Inflammation in the brain can impair cognitive function, and in the case of chronic inflammation, this can lead to long-lasting cognitive impairment.

How do you naturally detox your body from mold? ›

Here are 8 natural remedies to help eliminate the danger of black mold exposure:
  1. Phosphatidylcholine.
  2. Glutathione. Glutathione, known as the “master antioxidant” is great at protecting your mitochondria from the damaging effects of oxidative stress. ...
  3. Garlic. ...
  4. Chlorophyll. ...
  5. CoQ10.
  6. Activated Charcoal.
  7. Probiotics. ...
  8. Ozone Therapy.
13 Aug 2019

Can I test myself for mold exposure? ›

You don't have to sit back and accept the harmful effects of mold exposure. Getting a mycotoxin test may help you determine whether you have mold toxicity in your body. This is a great way to test whether the harmful antigens in the mold are negatively impacting your health.

Can mold cause fibromyalgia? ›

Often, molds and mycotoxins cause chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia.

Does mold cause autoimmune disease? ›

Can mold cause autoimmune disorders? No. While there has been concern raised that mold in the environment could be a trigger for autoimmunity, there is currently no scientific evidence that mold can cause AIDs.

Can mold cause behavior problems? ›

Mold toxicity can manifest in different ways in people. It's more commonly linked to physical problems, such as difficulty breathing, fatigue, and headaches, but research shows that it can present itself in a psychiatric way, too. This includes brain fog, depression, anxiety, problems concentrating, and insomnia.

How do you get rid of ochratoxin? ›

Possible treatment:

Agents such as oral cholestyramine, charcoal, and phenylalanine can help prevent the absorption of these toxins from food. Antioxidants such as vitamins A, E, C, NAC, rosmarinic acid, and liposomal glutathione alone or in combination have been shown to mitigate the oxidative effects of the toxin.

How do you treat mycotoxins? ›

How to Treat Mycotoxin Exposure?
  1. Use clay, charcoal, cholestyramine or other binders to bind internal mycotoxins. ...
  2. While using binders, the patient must maintain normal bowel function and avoid constipation. ...
  3. Look for and treat colonizing molds/fungal infections in the body.
25 Jun 2015

What is the genie test? ›

GENIE test can identify dysregulated gene expression in chronic fatiguing and inflammatory illnesses — ProgeneDX.

Can mold cause chronic inflammation? ›

Because of the toxic nature of mycotoxins, they prompt the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines creating a cyclical inflammatory response. What is mold illness or CIRS? As noted, CIRS is Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, also known as mold illness.

What is the shoemaker protocol? ›

It is a nasal spray that is dosed at 50 mcg/mL, 1 spray 4 times a day. The first dose should be given in the office. A TGF B and C4a should be drawn before the first spray and again in 15 minutes. If the levels rise, there is a hidden mold exposure.

Can mold cause MS like symptoms? ›

It is frequently misdiagnosed because it can manifest itself in many different symptoms. Toxic mold can cause a chronic inflammatory response such as multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, fatigue, and histamine intolerance, which do not often respond well to treatment.

Can mold cause high cortisol? ›

Mold can affect your hormones in a way that it puts added stress on your adrenal glands, causing a spike in cortisol levels.

How do u test for mold? ›

Most mold is unmistakable, but sometimes small or largely hidden growths just make a surface look dirty. A quick test for mold can be done when you dip a swab in diluted bleach (1 part bleach, 16 parts water) and dab it on the wall. If the spot quickly lightens (or keeps coming back after cleaning), assume it's mold.

What is the fastest way to get rid of inflammation in the body? ›

Simple rules of thumb for anti-inflammatory eating:
  1. Eat more plants. Whole plant foods have the anti-inflammatory nutrients that your body needs. ...
  2. Focus on antioxidants. They help prevent, delay or repair some types of cell and tissue damage. ...
  3. Get your Omega-3s. ...
  4. Eat less red meat. ...
  5. Cut the processed stuff.
13 Aug 2019

What are the 5 classic signs of inflammation? ›

Based on visual observation, the ancients characterised inflammation by five cardinal signs, namely redness (rubor), swelling (tumour), heat (calor; only applicable to the body' extremities), pain (dolor) and loss of function (functio laesa).

What cancers are associated with chronic inflammation? ›

Over time, chronic inflammation can cause DNA damage and lead to cancer. For example, people with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease, have an increased risk of colon cancer.

How long does it take to reduce chronic inflammation in the body? ›

Once you've healed, you'll notice the symptoms that were nagging you, like unexplained fatigue and mental fog, will have disappeared or become unnoticeable. In my practice, I've found that calming down the immune system and chronic inflammation can take approximately four weeks.

Is CIRS permanent? ›

When a person who is genetically susceptible to CIRS spends time in a water-damaged building, that person's immune system may not be able to recognize the mold biotoxins being inhaled. Instead of binding to and removing them from the body, the immune system allows the biotoxins to circulate—potentially indefinitely.

Is CIRS curable? ›

The opportunity for patients is that despite the multi-system, multi-symptom nature of CIRS, it is eminently treatable if managed by a clinician skilled in the diagnosis and treatment of CIRS. Hope is available. Cures are possible.

How common is CIRS? ›

Since I've begun testing my patients for Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (CIRS) markers in my practice, I'm surprised at just how prevalent this condition is turning out to be. Up to 25 percent of the population is thought to have the gene HLA, which makes them more susceptible to biotoxins.

Can CIRS cause anxiety? ›

Inhabitants of affected dwellings typically report headaches, respiratory and musculoskeletal symptoms. Some studies have also reported that mold-exposed groups had altered nervous system functioning, including changes in balance and vision. The exposed people also had significant depression and anxiety.

Is there a blood test for CIRS? ›

Testing for CIRS includes a blood test that covers inflammatory markers, hormone markers and some relevant antibodies. The nasal swab test for MARCoNS is also useful to consider especially if there are sinus symptoms, although this can still be present with no symptoms.

How do you tell if you have CIRS? ›

Some of the most common symptoms of CIRS and mold illness include:
  1. Fibromyalgia.
  2. Visual insensitivity.
  3. Unexplained weight gain.
  4. Mood swings.
  5. Digestive issues.
  6. Tinnitus.
  7. Vertigo.
  8. Memory problems.

Can mold be detected in urine? ›

Testing for mold exposure using a mold urine test might seem counter intuitive but it is actually the best way to find mold in the body. Mycotoxin exposure is a serious medical issues that can cause other health problems, Realtime Labs uses small urine test to determine if you have been exposed to toxic mold.

Is there a blood test for mold? ›

A blood test, sometimes called the radioallergosorbent test, can measure your immune system's response to mold by measuring the amount of certain antibodies in your bloodstream known as immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies.

What are the signs of mold toxicity? ›

The most common symptoms of mold exposure include:
  • Coughing.
  • Postnasal drip.
  • Sneezing.
  • Dry, scaly skin.
  • Itchy eyes, nose, or throat.
  • Nasal congestion.
26 May 2021

Does mold exposure cause weight gain? ›

Sudden, unexplained weight gain can also result from mold exposure. Leptin is a hormone that regulates appetite. Your body's inflammatory response to the mycotoxins produces chemicals that block leptin receptors, and the resulting imbalance can cause weight gain, even from normal calorie intake.

Why does CIRS cause weight gain? ›

High levels of leptin increase the amount of fat stored in the body, causing weight gain. In biotoxin-related illness, cytokines attach to leptin receptors in the hypothalamus, interfering with leptin signaling and creating leptin resistance. Weight gain due to leptin resistance is common in CIRS patients.

What illnesses can mold cause? ›

These include:
  • Mold-induced asthma. In people allergic to mold, breathing in spores can trigger an asthma flare-up. ...
  • Allergic fungal sinusitis. This results from an inflammatory reaction to fungus in the sinuses.
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. ...
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
21 Jun 2021

Can mold toxicity cause joint pain? ›

Some types of mold do produce toxic compounds, however, known as mycotoxins. It's these compounds that can cause a myriad of medical problems, including joint pain.

Is CIRS an autoimmune disease? ›

CIRS is short for Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and is essentially a biotoxin triggered immune dysfunction disorder. This syndrome was originally characterized by Ritchie Shoemaker MD, a Family Physician in Pocomoke, Maryland.

Can mold cause behavior problems? ›

Mold toxicity can manifest in different ways in people. It's more commonly linked to physical problems, such as difficulty breathing, fatigue, and headaches, but research shows that it can present itself in a psychiatric way, too. This includes brain fog, depression, anxiety, problems concentrating, and insomnia.

Is CIRS genetic? ›

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Genetic Testing

The susceptible population makes up 95 % of the CIRS patients. The remaining 5% of CIRS patients do not have this genetic susceptibility. Approximately 76 % of the population is not susceptible to CIRS.

Videos

1. Autoimmune Update | Mold Illness | Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome | CIRS
(Lady Carnivory)
2. Diagnosis in chronic inflammatory response syndrome in mold
(Surviving Mold)
3. CIRS Evaluation & Toolkit (Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome)
(WholisticMatters)
4. The Answer to Mold & Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (CIRS) / Dr. Alan Gruining's Testimony
(Mr. Mold, Inc)
5. CIRS: Neuroinflammation in Clinical Practice Part 2
(WholisticMatters)
6. Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
(Metagenics Institute)

Top Articles

Latest Posts

Article information

Author: Maia Crooks Jr

Last Updated: 12/12/2022

Views: 6108

Rating: 4.2 / 5 (63 voted)

Reviews: 94% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Maia Crooks Jr

Birthday: 1997-09-21

Address: 93119 Joseph Street, Peggyfurt, NC 11582

Phone: +2983088926881

Job: Principal Design Liaison

Hobby: Web surfing, Skiing, role-playing games, Sketching, Polo, Sewing, Genealogy

Introduction: My name is Maia Crooks Jr, I am a homely, joyous, shiny, successful, hilarious, thoughtful, joyous person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.