5 Cardinal Signs of Inflammation (2022)

Signs of inflammation are part of the classic presentation of complaints and symptoms that healthcare providers rely on to help them make a diagnosis.

Inflammation has many causes, with how your body responds to infection among them. Five cardinal signs characterize this response: pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. In some cases, though, there may be no symptoms of inflammation at all.

This article describes two types of inflammation—acute and chronic—and details the five signs. It also discusses additional signs and complications of inflammation, as well as treatment options.

5 Cardinal Signs of Inflammation (1)

What Is Inflammation?

Inflammation is a complex process involving a variety of cell and signaling proteins that protect the body from infection and foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses.Inflammation helps the body by producing white blood cells, which your body needs to fight infection.

Sometimes, the immune system triggers an inflammatory response inappropriately.This is the case with autoimmune diseases. The body compensates by attacking its own healthy tissues, acting as if they are infected or abnormal.

When the inflammation process starts, chemicals in white blood cells are released into the blood and the affected tissues to protect the body.The chemicals increase blood flow to the infected or injured body areas, causing redness and warmth.

These chemicals may also cause leaking of fluids into tissues, resulting in swelling. This protective process can also stimulate nerves and tissues, causing pain.

3 Basic Causes

The causes of inflammation are extensive but can be broadly classified as:

  • Biological, such as infections, diseases, and abnormal immune responses (including autoimmune diseases, atopy, allergy, and drug hypersensitivity)
  • Chemical, including poisons, toxins, and alcohol
  • Physical, such as injuries, burns, frostbite, or radiation exposure

Inflammation of any type can be acute or chronic.

Acute inflammation is short term in nature while chronic inflammation is long-lasting and possibly destructive.

Acute Inflammation

Acute inflammation may include heat (sometimes from fever) or warmth in the affected area.

Acute inflammation is a healthy and necessary function that helps the body attack bacteria and other foreign substances in the body. Once the body has healed, inflammation subsides.

(Video) Cardinal Signs of Inflammation

Examples of conditions that cause acute inflammation include:

  • Acute bronchitis, which causes inflammation of the airways that carry air to the lungs
  • An infected ingrown toenail
  • A sore throat related to the flu
  • Dermatitis, which describes multiple skin conditions including eczema, leading to red, itchy inflamed rashes in areas where the skin flexes (such as inside the elbows and behind the knees)
  • Physical trauma
  • Sinusitis, which can cause short-term inflammation in the membranes of the nose and surrounding sinuses (usually the result of a viral infection)
  • Skin cuts and scratches

Chronic Inflammation

Chronic inflammation, on the other hand, may continue to attack healthy areas if it doesn't "turn off." It may not be as visible as acute inflammation because it includes:

  • Inflammatory arthritis, which covers a group of conditions distinguished by inflammation of joints and tissues (including rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and psoriatic arthritis)
  • Asthma, which causes inflammation in the air passages that carry oxygen to the lungs. Inflammation causes these airways to become narrow and breathing to become difficult.
  • Periodontitis, which causes inflammation of gums and other supporting teeth structures. It is caused by bacteria triggered by local inflammation.
  • Inflammatory boweldisease (IBD), which, like Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, causes signs of inflammation in the gut (gastrointestinal tract)

Signsof Inflammation

The five cardinal signs of inflammation are common enough that you should be able to spot them immediately. They may differ in the organs that they affect, but signs of inflammation in the heart and other sites of the body share much in common.

Pain

With both acute and chronic inflammation, pain is the result of inflammatory chemicals that stimulate nerve endings, causing the affected areas to feel more sensitive.

Inflammation can cause pain in joints and muscles.When inflammation is chronic, a person will experience high levels of pain sensitivity and stiffness.The inflamed areas may be sensitive to touch.

Heat

When inflamed areas of the body feel warm, it is because there is more blood flow in those areas.

People with arthritic conditions may have inflamed joints that feel warm to the touch.The skin around those joints, however, may not have the same warmth. Whole-body inflammation may cause fevers as a result of the inflammatory response when someone has an illness or infection.

Redness

Inflamed areas of the body may appear red because the blood vessels of inflamed areas are filled with more blood than usual.

Swelling

Swelling, or edema, is common when a part of the body is inflamed.It results from fluid accumulating in tissues either throughout the body or in the affected area.

Swelling can occur without inflammation, especially with injuries.

Loss of Function

Inflammation may cause loss of function related to both injury and illness.For example, an inflamed joint may not move properly, or a respiratory infection causing signs of inflammation in the lungs may make it difficult to breathe.

Acute inflammation occurs at the onset of an injury that lasts for several days. It involves two components:

  • The cellular component, in which first-line white blood cells called leukocytes and macrophages are activated and recruited to the site of the injury
  • The vascular phase, in which blood vessels dilate (open) and tissues swell to accommodate the rapid influx of immune cells and antimicrobial chemicals

What Are Cytokines?

Cytokines released into the bloodstream lead to increased vascular permeability, or the ability of molecules to pass through blood vessels and reach tissue.Cytokines are molecules that encourage your cells to communicate with each other. A healthy immune system depends on them.

(Video) Cardinal signs of inflammation: Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes

How Pain Management Can Treat and Reduce Different Types of Conditions

Additional Signs and Complications

When inflammation is severe, it may cause additional signs and symptoms, including:

  • Exhaustion
  • Fever
  • General feeling of sickness

Inflammation due to illness may have dangerous complications, including a condition called sepsis. This occurs when the body's immune system overwhelmingly responds to a serious infection, which leads to generalized, life-threatening tissue damage.

Treatment

it's vital to identify and treat the underlying cause of inflammation, be it infection or another issue.

In many cases, treatment includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids.

NSAIDs

NSAIDs can alleviate pain associated with inflammation. They also counteract the enzymes that contribute to inflammation in order to reduce these processes.Examples of NSAIDs are Advil (ibuprofen) and Aleve (naproxen), which are available without a prescription.

Sometimes, healthcare providers will prescribe stronger NSAIDs for people who have chronic inflammation. These include Mobic (meloxicam) and Celebrex (celecoxib).

Long-term use of NSAIDs has been associated with stomach ulcers and GI bleeding. So it's important to talk to your healthcare provider before using NSAIDs for longer than 10 days.

NSAIDs may intensify some conditions, including asthma and kidney problems. They can also increase the risk for strokes and heart attacks.

Potent Corticosteroid Drugs Tame Inflammation Quickly

Corticosteroids

Corticosteroids are known for preventing inflammation.There are two different types of corticosteroids: glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids:

  • Glucocorticoids are prescribed for inflammation-producing conditions such as inflammatory arthritis, IBD, asthma, and allergic reactions.They are available in pill form, and as injections and inhalers. Creams and ointments can be prescribed to manage inflammation of the skin, eyes, and nose.
  • Mineralocorticoids are often prescribed to people with adrenal insufficiency, which happens when the adrenal glands fail to produce enough hormones.

Corticosteroid side effects are more common when taken by mouth. Inhalers and injections may reduce side effects. Inhaled medication can cause oral thrush (fungal infection) in the mouth, so rinsing with water after use is important.

(Video) INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE AND 5 CARDINAL SIGNS OF INFLAMMATION: PHARMACOLOGY LECTURE

Additional side effects may include:

  • Acne
  • Blurred vision
  • Easy bruising
  • Face swelling
  • Higher blood pressure
  • Increased appetite and weight gain
  • Mood swings
  • Nervousness or restlessness
  • Stomach irritation
  • Water retention and swelling

Long-term use of corticosteroids has been associated with:

  • Cushing syndrome, a condition that results from exposure to corticosteroids. Symptoms include a fatty hump between the shoulders, purplish stretch marks, and a swelled face.
  • Heart disease
  • Osteoporosis, a bone-weakening condition
  • Ulcers and stomach bleeding

Summary

Inflammation occurs as your body fights infection. And as it wages the fight, you may experience pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.

The symptoms are common enough, but it's still smart to learn the differences between acute and chronic inflammation. It probably will make a difference in how your particular case of inflammation is treated.

A Word From Verywell

Inflammation is a necessary part of the healing process and usually nothing to worry about.But when inflammation is chronic, it can be a serious health problem. See your healthcare provider to identify the source of the inflammation. It's the first step toward proper treatment.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What can I drink to reduce inflammation?

    Water, tea, coffee, milk, acidic juices, smoothies, and moderate amounts of alcohol (specifically red wine) can help fight inflammation. Avoid sugary drinks and sodas.

  • What are the worst foods for inflammation?

    Anti-inflammatory foods to avoid include white bread and pastries made with refined flours, fried foods (including potatoes), red and processed meats, like beef and sausage, and margarines.

    Learn More:Nutrition, Diet, and Healthy Eating

    (Video) Inflammation | Cardinal Signs of Inflammation | Types of Inflammation | Rohit Kumar Trivedi
  • Can inflammation affect internal organs?

    Over time, chronic inflammation can cause changes in organs that may increase the risk of heart attack, cancers, and other age-related diseases. Chronic inflammation is associated with chronic condition like diabetes, heart disease, COPD, or HIV.

    Learn More:How Chronic Inflammation Complicates HIV

  • How do you test for inflammation?

    Testing for inflammation will depend on your healthcare provider's assessment and what the suspected source may be. Blood tests, allergy skin tests, and gastrointestinal (GI) procedures are just a few of the possible tests.

    Learn More:How Inflammatory Biomarkers Help You and Your Doctor Manage Inflammation

    (Video) Clinical features of inflammation

FAQs

What are the five 5 cardinal signs of inflammation and its Latin name? ›

The cardinal signs of inflammation include: pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Some of these indicators can be seen here due to an allergic reaction. The five cardinal signs are heat, pain, redness, swelling, and loss of function (Latin calor, dolor, rubor, tumor, and functio laesa).

What are the 5 steps of inflammation? ›

Inflammation has many causes, with how your body responds to infection among them. Five cardinal signs characterize this response: pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.

What are the 5 classic signs of infection? ›

Know the Signs and Symptoms of Infection
  • Fever (this is sometimes the only sign of an infection).
  • Chills and sweats.
  • Change in cough or a new cough.
  • Sore throat or new mouth sore.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Nasal congestion.
  • Stiff neck.
  • Burning or pain with urination.

What are the original 4 cardinal signs of inflammation? ›

This type of stimulation–response activity generates some of the most dramatic aspects of inflammation, with large amounts of cytokine production, the activation of many cell types, and in fact the four cardinal signs of inflammation: heat, pain, redness, and swelling (1).

What is rubor dolor and calor? ›

This assonant phrase refers to the heat (calor), pain (dolor), redness (rubor), and swelling (tumor) that characterize the clinical symptoms of inflammation as they were defined in the first century AD by the Roman scholar Celsus.

Is fever cardinal signs of inflammation? ›

The five cardinal signs of inflammation are erythema, edema, heat, pain, and altered function. These largely result from innate responses that draw increased blood flow to the injured or infected tissue. Fever is a system-wide sign of inflammation that raises the body temperature and stimulates the immune response.

What are the 3 main causes of inflammation? ›

Causes of an inflammation

Pathogens (germs) like bacteria, viruses or fungi. External injuries like scrapes or damage through foreign objects (for example a thorn in your finger) Effects of chemicals or radiation.

What are the types of inflammation? ›

There are two types of inflammation:
  • Acute inflammation: The response to sudden body damage, such as cutting your finger. To heal the cut, your body sends inflammatory cells to the injury. ...
  • Chronic inflammation: Your body continues sending inflammatory cells even when there is no outside danger.

What is the first stage of inflammation? ›

The are three main stages of inflammation which can each vary in intensity and duration: Acute -swelling stage. Sub-acute – regenerative stage. Chronic – scar tissue maturation and remodelling stage.

What are the three hallmark signs of inflammation? ›

What are the signs of inflammation? The four cardinal signs of inflammation are redness (Latin rubor), heat (calor), swelling (tumor), and pain (dolor).

Does sugar cause inflammation? ›

Consuming too much added sugar can raise blood pressure and increase chronic inflammation, both of which are pathological pathways to heart disease.

Which foods cause inflammation? ›

What foods cause inflammation?
  • Red meat and processed meats, including bacon, hot dogs, lunch meats and cured meats.
  • Refined grains, including white bread, white rice, pasta and breakfast cereals.
  • Snack foods, including chips, cookies, crackers and pastries.
  • Sodas and other sweetened drinks.
  • Fried foods.
29 Jun 2022

What are cardinal signs? ›

Cardinal Signs: Aries, Cancer, Libra and Capricorn

Cardinal signs are the signs that star every season. So, for those in the Southern Hemisphere, Aries marks the beginnings of autumn, Cancer kicks off winter, Libra begins spring and Capricorn is the start of summer.

What are the signs of inflammation in the body? ›

5 signs of inflammation
  • heat.
  • pain.
  • redness.
  • swelling.
  • loss of function.
19 Dec 2018

What is the cause of rubor? ›

Reddening (“rubor”) is caused by increased blood circulation. This results in a rise of body temperature (“calor”) at this point and the supply of nutrients, oxygen and antigens (e.g., antibodies and immunocompetent cells) is increased.

What is rubor or redness? ›

Medical Definition of rubor

: redness of the skin (as from inflammation)

What does functio laesa mean? ›

[ fŭngk′shē-ō lē′sə ] n. The loss of the capacity to function.

What is dolor pain? ›

Medical Definition of dolor

1 obsolete : physical pain —used in old medicine as one of five cardinal symptoms of inflammation. 2 : mental suffering or anguish.

How is inflammation measured? ›

The most common way to measure inflammation is to conduct a blood test for C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), which is a marker of inflammation. Doctors also measure homocysteine levels to evaluate chronic inflammation. Finally, physicians test for HbA1C — a measurement of blood sugar — to assess damage to red blood cells.

What are inflammatory markers? ›

What are inflammatory markers? Inflammatory markers are blood tests used by doctors to detect inflammation in the body, caused by many diseases. This can include infections, auto-immune conditions and cancers.

How do you test for inflammation? ›

These are four of the most common tests for inflammation:
  1. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (sed rate or ESR). This test measures how fast red blood cells settle to the bottom of a vertical tube of blood. ...
  2. C-reactive protein (CRP). ...
  3. Ferritin. ...
  4. Fibrinogen.
29 Mar 2022

Do eggs cause inflammation? ›

Consuming eggs regularly can lead to an increased amount of swelling and joint pain. The yolks contain arachidonic acid, which helps trigger inflammation in the body. Eggs also contain saturated fat which can also induce joint pain.

Does coffee cause inflammation? ›

Research suggests that coffee does not cause inflammation in most people—even if your norm is more than one or two caffeinated cups. In fact, it's quite the opposite. Coffee may have anti-inflammatory effects in the body.

What infections cause inflammation? ›

Some factors and infections that can lead to acute inflammation include: acute bronchitis, appendicitis and other illnesses ending in “-itis” an ingrown toenail. a sore throat from a cold or flu.
...
Acute inflammation
  • exposure to a substance, such as a bee sting or dust.
  • an injury.
  • an infection.

What diseases are caused by inflammation? ›

Research has shown that chronic inflammation is associated with heart disease, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, and bowel diseases like Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Yet, because chronic inflammation can continue for a long time, it's not easy to know its exact impact.

What are the most common inflammatory diseases? ›

Some common inflammatory diseases
  • Fatty liver disease. Fatty liver disease can be caused by poor diet, which can set off an inflammatory response. ...
  • Endometriosis. ...
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus. ...
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus. ...
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) ...
  • Asthma. ...
  • Rheumatoid arthritis. ...
  • Obesity.

What is the final stage of inflammation? ›

During the last phase of the healing, inflammation signs start to subside. The four cardinal signs are no longer visible. It is during the remodeling phase that collagen tissue fibers reorganize themselves. This happens to support the tissues better.

When does inflammation peak? ›

Phase 2: Inflammation (swelling)

Inflammation starts within the first hour or two after injury, peaks within 1-3 days but lasts at least a couple of weeks. This phase is when you will experience swelling and some heat around your injury. This is entirely normal and a natural part of your body's tissue healing process.

What means inflammation? ›

(IN-fluh-MAY-shun) Redness, swelling, pain, and/or a feeling of heat in an area of the body. This is a protective reaction to injury, disease, or irritation of the tissues.

What immune cells cause inflammation? ›

During inflammation, macrophages present antigens, undergo phagocytosis, and modulate the immune response by producing cytokines and growth factors. Mast cells, which reside in connective tissue matrices and on epithelial surfaces, are effector cells that initiate inflammatory responses.

What are the three 3 events that occur during the inflammation response? ›

The Three Stages of Inflammation
  • Written by Christina Eng – Physiotherapist, Clinical Pilates Instructor.
  • Phase 1: Inflammatory Response. Healing of acute injuries begins with the acute vascular inflammatory response. ...
  • Phase 2: Repair and Regeneration. ...
  • Phase 3: Remodelling and Maturation.

Does dairy cause inflammation? ›

For most people, dairy does not cause inflammation, and there is no need to avoid it. Many dairy-containing foods may be eaten as part of a healthy diet.

Is oatmeal inflammatory? ›

Background: Oat and its compounds have been found to have anti-inflammatory effects.

What veggies cause inflammation? ›

Nightshade Vegetables

Eggplants, peppers, tomatoes and potatoes are all members of the nightshade family. These vegetables contain the chemical solanine, which some people claim aggravates arthritis pain and inflammation.

Are bananas inflammatory? ›

Bananas are an example of anti-inflammatory food. They are a nutritious fruit that contains bioactive compounds , and contain properties that are: antimicrobial. antioxidant.

Do bananas cause inflammation? ›

Researchers found that not only did both types of bananas reduce inflammation, they also had an antioxidant effect, which helped keep immune cells functioning optimally.

What is the number one anti-inflammatory food? ›

1. FATTY FISH. Fish like salmon, mackerel, sardines, and tuna give you protein and the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. These components reduce inflammation in the body.

What are my 3 main signs? ›

The Big 3 are:
  • The Sun Sign: The essence of your personality.
  • The Moon Sign: Your emotional nature.
  • The Rising Sign (or Ascendant): The face you show to the world.
10 Jun 2022

What are fixed cardinal and mutable signs? ›

The four mutable signs are Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius, and Pisces; the fixed signs are Taurus, Leo, Scorpio, and Aquarius; and the cardinal signs are Aries, Cancer, Libra, and Capricorn.

What's the difference between cardinal and fixed signs? ›

In a nutshell, that means cardinal signs start each weather season, mutable signs end every season, and fixed signs are in the middle of each season. Each of the four cardinal Sun signs is tied to the beginning of a new season.

What blood test shows inflammation? ›

Blood tests known as 'inflammatory markers' can detect inflammation in the body, caused by many diseases including infections, auto-immune conditions and cancers. The tests don't identify what's causing the inflammation: it might be as simple as a viral infection, or as serious as cancer.

What does redness on legs mean? ›

Red, swollen legs may be a sign of a circulation problem. Most likely what you are experiencing is called edema. “Edema is the actual swelling of the ankles and the legs, typically caused by venous hypertension or venous insufficiency, said Dr. Redding.

What are the 6 P's of peripheral vascular disease? ›

The six Ps (pain, pallor, poikilothermia, pulselessness, paresthesia, paralysis) are the classic presentation of acute arterial occlusion in patients without underlying occlusive vascular disease.

Does alcohol cause inflammation? ›

Alcohol is a toxin that can cause damage at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels. Consuming alcohol can trigger inflammation across the entire body, including in the gut, liver, face, joints, and brain. Alcohol can cause two types of inflammation: acute inflammation and chronic inflammation.

What does functio laesa mean? ›

[ fŭngk′shē-ō lē′sə ] n. The loss of the capacity to function.

What are the signs of inflammation in the body? ›

5 signs of inflammation
  • heat.
  • pain.
  • redness.
  • swelling.
  • loss of function.
19 Dec 2018

What is inflammation What are the symptoms and signs of inflammation? ›

When a wound swells up, turns red and hurts, it may be a sign of inflammation. Very generally speaking, inflammation is the body's immune system's response to an irritant. The irritant might be a germ, but it could also be a foreign object, such as a splinter in your finger.

What is rubor inflammation? ›

Inflammation. The cardinal signs of inflammation are rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), dolor (pain), and loss of function.

What is calor? ›

Medical Definition of calor

: bodily heat that is a sign of inflammation.

What are the types of inflammation? ›

There are two types of inflammation:
  • Acute inflammation: The response to sudden body damage, such as cutting your finger. To heal the cut, your body sends inflammatory cells to the injury. ...
  • Chronic inflammation: Your body continues sending inflammatory cells even when there is no outside danger.

What is the first stage of inflammation when an injury occurs? ›

Inflammatory Response: Acute swelling stage (Phase 1)

This is a fundamental type of response by the body to disease and injury. It is characterized by the classical signs of pain, heat, redness, and swelling.

What is the main cause of inflammation in the body? ›

When inflammation happens, chemicals from your body's white blood cells enter your blood or tissues to protect your body from invaders. This raises the blood flow to the area of injury or infection. It can cause redness and warmth. Some of the chemicals cause fluid to leak into your tissues, resulting in swelling.

What blood test shows inflammation? ›

Blood tests known as 'inflammatory markers' can detect inflammation in the body, caused by many diseases including infections, auto-immune conditions and cancers. The tests don't identify what's causing the inflammation: it might be as simple as a viral infection, or as serious as cancer.

What illness causes inflammation in the body? ›

Some common inflammatory diseases
  • Fatty liver disease. Fatty liver disease can be caused by poor diet, which can set off an inflammatory response. ...
  • Endometriosis. ...
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus. ...
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus. ...
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) ...
  • Asthma. ...
  • Rheumatoid arthritis. ...
  • Obesity.

What are 4 types of inflammation? ›

The four cardinal signs of inflammation—redness (Latin rubor), heat (calor), swelling (tumor), and pain (dolor)—were described in the 1st century ad by the Roman medical writer Aulus Cornelius Celsus. Redness is caused by the dilation of small blood vessels in the area of injury.

How do you test for inflammation? ›

These are four of the most common tests for inflammation:
  1. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (sed rate or ESR). This test measures how fast red blood cells settle to the bottom of a vertical tube of blood. ...
  2. C-reactive protein (CRP). ...
  3. Ferritin. ...
  4. Fibrinogen.
29 Mar 2022

Does sugar cause inflammation? ›

Consuming too much added sugar can raise blood pressure and increase chronic inflammation, both of which are pathological pathways to heart disease.

What is dolor pain? ›

Medical Definition of dolor

1 obsolete : physical pain —used in old medicine as one of five cardinal symptoms of inflammation. 2 : mental suffering or anguish.

What are inflammatory markers? ›

What are inflammatory markers? Inflammatory markers are blood tests used by doctors to detect inflammation in the body, caused by many diseases. This can include infections, auto-immune conditions and cancers.

Does dairy cause inflammation? ›

For most people, dairy does not cause inflammation, and there is no need to avoid it. Many dairy-containing foods may be eaten as part of a healthy diet.

Videos

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4. INFLAMMATION SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS | Systemic & Local
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